Post UTME Syllabus in Biology

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This is complete Post UTME Syllabus in Biology for candidates who are writing post utme exam this year in various universities. So, if you are preparing for post utme exam, it’s important that you follow this syllabus while you are reading. Try as much as possible to cover it with text books and post utme past questions.

  1. Variety of Organism
  2. Characteristics of Organisms

(a)  Cell structure (plant and animal) and functions of cell components: cell divisions.

(b) Differences between plants and animals.

  1. Evolutionary Trends in Organisms as shown by a study of the characteristics of the following groups

(a) Monera (prokaryotes) e.g. bacteria and blue-green algae.

(b) Protista (protozoan and protophyt) e.g. amoeba and Euglena.

(c)  Fungi e.g. mushrooms and bread mould

(d)  Plantae (plants)

(i)   Broyophyta (mosses and liverworts)

(ii)   Pteridophyta (Ferns)

(iii) Gymnospermae (Conifers) and

(iv) Angiospermae (Flowering plants)

(e) Animalia (animals)

(i)   Unicellulat animals (protozoa)

(ii)   Multicellular animals (invertebrates)


See Also: Post UTME Syllabus in Physics


(a) Coelanterata (e.g. Hydra)

(b) Platyheimintes (flatworms)

(c) Nematoda (roundworms)

(d) Annelida (e.g. earthworms)

(e) Arthopoda (e.g. insects, millipedes, ticks)

(f)   Mollusca (e.g. Snails)

(iii) Multicellular animals (vertebrates)

Pisces (cartilaginous and bony fishes)

Amphibia (e.g. toads and frogs)

Reptilia (e.g. lizards, snakes and turtles)

Ayes (birds)

Mammalia (mammals)


  1. Forms and Function
  2. Nutrition

(a) Modes of nutrition

(i)   Autotrophic photosynthetic: chemosynthetic

(ii)   Heterotrophic: holozoic, parasitic symbiotic, saprophyte and carnivorous plants

(b) Plant Nutrition

(i)   Photosynthesis: Outline of the process; light and dark reactions; materials and conditions necessary for photosynthesis and evidence of photosynthesis.

(ii)   The macro and micro-nutrients required by plants and effects of mineral deficiencies

(c) Animal Nutrition

(i)   Food substances: classes carbohydrates proteins fats and oils, vitamins, mineral salts and water as component f diet.

(ii)   Food tests

(iii) The structure of a tooth

Types of teeth and their functions. The relations of dentition to diet as illustrated by an omnivore, e.g man, a herbivore, e.g. Sheep and a carnivore e.g. dog.

(iv) The alimentary canal of a mammal

(v) The process of nutrition: ingestion, digestion, absorption, transport and assimilation of digested food.

(vi) Feeding habits: Modifications and mechanism

  1. Transport

(a) Need for transportation:

(b) Materials for transportation: excretory products. gases, manufactured food, digested food, nutrients and hormones.

(c) Structure of the heart, arteries, veins, capillaries and vascular bundles.

(d) Media of transportation: cytoplasm is cells, cell sap or latex in most plants; body fluid in invertebrates, blood and lymph in vertebrates.

(e) Composition and function of blood and lymph

(f)   Mechanism of transportation.

  1. Respiration

(a) Outline of the process and its significance

(b) Respiratory organs/surfaces:

Body surface gills, trachea, lungs stomata and lenticels

(c) The mechanism of gaseous exchange in insects, fish, toads, mammals and plants.

(d) Cell (tissue) respiration aerobic, anaerobic and yeast fermentation.

  1. Excretion

(a) The meaning and significance of the process

(b) Types of excretory structures;

Kidney, stoma, Lenticels, flame cell, nephridium. malphigian tubule.

(c) Excretory mechanism in:

(i) Kidney (ii) Lungs (iii) Earthworms (iv) Insects

(v) skin

(d) Excretory products of plants

  1. Co-ordination and Control (a) Need for coordination and control

(i) The components, structure and functions of the central nervous system

(ii) The component and function of the peripheral nervous system

(iii) Mechanism of transmission of impulses (iv) Reflex action

(b) Sense organs (i) The skin as sense organ (ii) Organ of smell (iii) Organ of taste (iv) Organ of sight (v) Organ of hearing

(vi) Structure and function of each organ (c) Hormonal control

  1. ii) Hormones – sites of secretion and functions Endocrine glands: pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid. adrenal, pancreas and gonads and their secretions.

(ii)   Effects of over secretion and deficiency of different hormones

(iii) Plant hormones: The effect of plant hormones (auxin, gibberellins, cytokinins and ethylene) on growth.

(d) Homeostasis:

(i)   Regulation of body temperature

(ii) Smo-regulation and maintenance of acid-base balance


 See Also: Post UTME Syllabus in Chemistry


BIO 002 Biology II A. Ecology


  1. Basic concepts of habitat, niche, population, community, ecosystem, biosphere.
  2. Components of the ecosystem

Abiotic and Biotic: climatic, physiographic, edaphic, chemical, etc.

  1. Methods of measuring abiotic factors.
  2. Interactions of plants and animals with their environment.

Examples of association: Symbiosis, parasitism, saprophytism, commensalisms, competition and predation.

(a) Food chain: food webs and trophic levels.

(b) Energy flow in an ecosystem.

(i) Food/energy relationship in aquatic and terrestrial Environment.

(ii) Pyramid of energy, pyramid of numbers and pyramid of biomass.

  1. Biotic Communities

(a) Tropical rain forest

(b) Southern guinea savanna

(c) Northern guinea savanna

(d) Sahel savanna

(e) Desert

(f) Swamp/estuarine

  1. Ecology of Population

(a) Ecological Succession:

(i) Structural changes in species composition variety or diversity and increase in numbers.

(ii) General characteristics and outcomes of succession.

(b) Primary Succession

(c) Secondary Succession

See Also: Post UTME Syllabus in English Language

  1. Pollution and Control

(i) Sources/types, effects and the methods of control

(ii) Water and Soil Pollution Types, composition and effects of pollutants.

  1. Conservation of Natural Resources

–     The need and methods for conservation of natural resources water, soil, minerals, forest and wild life.

–     Agencies responsible for conservation such as WWF, FEPA, NCF.

–     Conservation education.

–     Conservation laws.


  1. Evolution
  2. Variation in Population

(a) Morphological variation in the physical appearance of individuals:

(i) Size (height. weight etc);

(ii) Colour (skin, eye, hair. coat of animals):

(iii) Finger prints

(b) Physiological variations:

(i) Ability to tongue:

(ii) Ability to taste phenylthio carbamide (PTC)

(iii) Blood groups

(c) Application of variation:

(i) Crime detection:

(ii) Blood transfusion;

iii) Determination of paternity.

  1. Biology of Hereditary (Genetics)

(a) Inheritance of characters in organisms.

(i) Hereditary variation: heritable and non- heritable characters;

(ii) Mendel’s work in genetics

– Mendelian traits and Mendelian laws.

(iii) Chromosomes: The basis of hereditary

– chromosome structure

– process of transmission of hereditary

characters from parent to offspring.

(b) Probability in Genetics

(c) Application of the principles of heredity to

(i) agriculture

(d) Sex determination and sex-linked characters

(ii) medicine

  1. Theories of Evolution

(i) Lamarck’s Theory

–     Evidence for evolution such as fossil records, comparative anatomy and physiology and embryology.

(ii)   Darwin’s Theory

–     Evolutionary trends in plants and animals such as from simple to Complex structural adaptations and from aquatic to terrestrial organisms


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