Download original University of MAIDUGURI (UNIMAID) Physiology Past Questions and Answers below for your practice. We discovered 168 repeated questions from 2009 to 2016. Read it below and download your complete copy now.
1. Long-term consequences of transection of the spinal cord in the lower cervical region include
A. Loss of thermoregulatory sweat production in the legs
B. Severe flexor spasms when the skin of the legs is stimulated.
C. Paralysis of bladder muscle
D. Inability to regulate sympathetic tone in leg blood vessels in response to baroreceptor stimulation
E. Inability to erect the penis and ejaculate semen
A. True – Thermoregulatory control is coordinated through the sympathetic nervous system by centers in the hypothalamus.
B. True – Due to exaggeration of the spinal withdrawal reflex
C. False – Both micturition and defecation can occur reflexly (their reflex centers are in the sacral cord) but are no longer under voluntary control.
D. True – This impairs the control of arterial blood pressure, especially in the erect position.
E. False – These are spinal reflexes with centers in the lumbosacral region of the spinal cord.
2. Alveolar ventilation is increased by breathing
A. 21 per cent O2 and 79 per cent N2
B. 17 per cent O2 and 83 per cent N2
C.2 per cent CO2 and 98 per cent O2
D.10 per cent CO2 and 90 per cent O2
E. A gas mixture, which raises arterial PCO2 by 10 per cent
A. False – This is the normal composition of air
B. False – The O2 level must fall to around 15 per cent before breathing is stimulated
C. True – The stimulating effect of high PCO2 is little affected by high PO2 levels
D. False – This level of carbon dioxide depresses breathing
E. True – This is enough to double the volume breathed per minute
3. After a baby is born, there is normally a fall in
a. Its systemic vascular resistance
b. Its pulmonary vascular resistance
c. Direct flow from pulmonary artery to aorta
d. Direct flow from right to left atrium
e. Direct flow from right to left ventricle
A – False – This rises due to closure of the umbilical arteries
B – True – Due to expansion of the lungs and their blood vessels
C – True – Flow in the ductus arteriosus reverses due to (A) and (B)
D – True – Again due to reversal of the pressure gradient
E – False – Normally there is no opening in the intraventricular septum
4. The basilar membrane of the cochlea vibrates [Select all that apply]
a. At the same frequency as the applied sound
b. With an amplitude, which is proportional to the frequency of the applied sound
c. With an amplitude, which is proportional to the loudness of the applied sound
d. Along more of its length when the applied sound has a high rather than a low frequency
e. Mainly at the base of the cochlea for the sound frequencies commonly used in speech
a. True – Harmonics are also faithfully reproduced
b. False – Frequency and amplitude need not be related. Frequency determines pitch and not the loudness of a sound wave
c. True – Hence, very loud sounds can damage the basilar membrane
d. False – Low frequency vibrations travel further up the cochlea
e. True – Speech frequencies (about 1000–3000 Hz) cause maximum vibration in this region
A. Injury to feet exposed for long periods to 5–10°C is due to frostbite.
B. Injury to the extremities is made less likely by increased affinity of haemoglobin for O2 at low temperatures.
C. Environments may induce a five-fold rise in resting metabolic rate.
D. Water immersion causes death from hypothermia more rapidly in fat than in thin people.
E. Water immersion of the hand at 5°C is painless.
A. False – The tissues do not freeze at this temperature; ‘trench foot’ injury can occur.
B. False – Hypoxia is an increased risk due to poor release of oxygen to the tissues.
C. True – Increased muscle tone and shivering account for this.
D. False – Fat people have much better insulation of their body core.
E. False – It is very painful, a warning of the danger of such temperatures.
6. An adrenal medullary tumor (pheochromocytoma) may cause an increase in
A. Systolic blood pressure, which may be transient or constant
B. Tremor of the extended hand
C. Basal metabolic rate
D. Diastolic arterial pressure, which does not respond to alpha adrenoceptor blocking drugs
E. Urinary catecholamines
A. True – Due to phasic or tonic release of adrenaline and/or noradrenaline
B. True – Due to beta adrenoceptor stimulation by adrenaline
C. True – Due to release of adrenaline.
D. False -receptor blockers typically lower the blood pressure
E. True – This is a diagnostic feature.
7. Peripheral differs from central circulatory failure in that
A. Hypovolemia is unusual
B. It leads to under-perfusion of the tissues.
C. Cardiac output is usually normal.
D. Central venous pressure is low.
E. Ventricular function is usually normal.
A. False – Hypovolemia due to severe hemorrhage is a common cause of peripheral circulatory failure; blood volume may be normal in central circulatory failure.
B. False – Both types of failure lead to under-perfusion of the tissues.
C. False – It is usually reduced in both types of failure.
D. True – It is usually raised in central circulatory failure.
E. True – Reduced ventricular function is the cause of central circulatory failure.
8. If a sample of red blood cells were placed in a solution of 9 g l-1 of NaCl (Mr 58.4) would they:
a) Swell by 20%
b) Shrink by 20%
c) Stay the same size
d) Swell and burst
c) Stay the same size
The osmolarity of the solution is 308 mOsmol l-1, approximately iso-osmotic with the blood so the cells will remain approximately the same size (i.e. the solution is isotonic with the cells).