# Waec Syllabus for Further Mathematics and Recommended TextBooks

See the original Waec Syllabus for Further Mathematics and Recommended TextBooks for this year. Note that this syllabus is for both Internal May/June and external Nov/Dec GCE candidates.

WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION

FURTHER MATHEMATICS/MATHEMATICS (ELECTIVE)

233

AIMS OF THE SYLLABUS

The aims of the syllabus are to test candidates on:

(i) further conceptual and manipulative skills in Mathematics;

(ii) an intermediate course of study which bridges the gap between Elementary

Mathematics and Higher Mathematics;

(iii) aspects of mathematics that can meet the needs of potential Mathematicians,

Engineers, Scientists and other professionals.

EXAMINATION FORMAT

There will be two papers both of which must be taken.

PAPER 1: (Objective) – 1½ hours (50 marks)

PAPER 2: (Essay) – 2½ hours (100 marks)

PAPER 1 (50 marks) – This will contain forty multiple-choice questions, testing the

areas common to the two alternatives of the syllabus, made up

of twenty-four from Pure Mathematics, eight from Statistics and

Probability and eight from Vectors and Mechanics. Candidates

are expected to attempt all the questions.

PAPER 2 – This will contain two sections – A and B.

SECTION A (48 marks) – This will consist of eight compulsory questions that are

elementary in type, drawn from the areas common to both

alternatives as for Paper 1 with four questions drawn from Pure

Mathematics, two from Statistics and Probability and two from

Vectors and Mechanics.

SECTION B (52 marks) – This will consist of ten questions of greater length and difficulty

consisting of three parts as follows:

PART I (PURE MATHEMATICS) – There will be four questions with two drawn from the

common areas of the syllabus and one from each

alternatives X and Y.

PART II (STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY) – There will be three questions with two drawn

from common areas of the syllabus and one

from alternative X.

PART III (VECTORS AND MECHANICS) – There will be three questions with two drawn

from common areas of the syllabus and one from

alternative X.

Candidates will be expected to answer any four questions with at least one from each part.

WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION

FURTHER MATHEMATICS/MATHEMATICS (ELECTIVE)

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234

Electronic calculators of the silent, cordless and non-programmable type may be used in these papers.

Only the calculator should be used; supplementary material such as instruction leaflets, notes on

programming must in no circumstances be taken into the examination hall. Calculators with paper

type output must not be used. No allowance will be made for the failure of a calculator in the

examination.

A silent, cordless and non-programmable calculator is defined as follows:

(a) It must not have audio or noisy keys or be operated in such a way as to disturb other

candidates;

(b) It must have its own self-contained batteries (rechargeable or dry) and not always be

dependent on a mains supply;

(c) It must not have the facility for magnetic card input or plug-in modules of programme

instructions.

DETAILED SYLLABUS

In addition to the following topics, harder questions may be set on the General Mathematics/

Mathematics (Core) syllabus.

In the column for CONTENTS, more detailed information on the topics to be tested is given while

the limits imposed on the topics are stated under NOTES.

NOTE: Alternative X shall be for Further Mathematics candidates since the topics therein are

peculiar to Further Mathematics.

Alternative Y shall be for Mathematics (Elective) candidates since the topics therein

are peculiar to Mathematics (Elective).

WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION

FURTHER MATHEMATICS/MATHEMATICS (ELECTIVE)

235

AREAS COMMON TO THE TWO ALTERNATIVES

ADDITIONAL TOPICS /NOTES

FOR ALTERNATIVES

TOPIC CONTENT NOTES

ALTERNATIVE X ALTERNATIVE Y

(For Candidates (For Candidates

offering Further offering Maths

Maths) Elective)

1. Circular Measure

and Radians

Lengths of Arcs of circles

Perimeters of Sectors and

Segments measure in radians

2. Trigonometry

(i) Sine, Cosine and

Tangent of angles

(ii) Trigonometric ratios of

the angles 300, 450, 600

(iii) Heights and distances

(iv) Angles of elevation and

depression

(v) Bearings, Positive and

negative angles.

(vi) Compound and multiple

angles.

(vii) Graphical solution of

simple trig. equation.

(viii) Solution of triangles.

For O0 ≤ θ ≤ 3600

Identify without use of

tables.

Simple cases only.

Their use in simple

Identities and solution

of trig. ratios.

a cos x + b sin x = c

Include the notion of

radian and trigonometric

ratios of negative angles.

3. Indices, Logarithms

and Surds.

(a) Indices

(b) Logarithms

(i) Elementary theory of

Indices.

(ii) Elementary theory of

Logarithm

log a xy = logax + logay,

logaxn = nlogax

(iii) Applications

1

Meaning of a0, a-n, a n

Calculations involving

multiplication,

division, power and nth

roots:

1

log an, log √a, log a n

Reduction of a relation

such as y = axb, (a, b

are constants) to a linear

form.

log10y = b log10x + log10a.

Consider other examples

such as y = abx .

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AREAS COMMON TO THE TWO ALTERNATIVES

ADDITIONAL TOPICS /NOTES

FOR ALTERNATIVES

TOPIC CONTENT NOTES

ALTERNATIVE X ALTERNATIVE Y

(For Candidates (For Candidates

offering Further offering Maths

Maths) Elective)

(c) Surds

(d) Sequences:

Linear and

Exponential

sequences

(e) Use of the

Binomial

Theorem for a

positive integral

index.

Surds of the form

a , a√ a and a + b√ n

√b

where a is rational.

b is a positive integer and n is

not a perfect square.

(i) Finite and infinite

sequences

(ii) Un = U1 + (n – 1) d,

where d is the common

difference.

(iii) Sn = n (U1 + Un)

2

(iv) Un = U1 rn-1

where r is the common ratio.

(v) Sn = U1(1 – rn ) ; r < 1

1 – r

or

Sn = U1 (rn – 1) ; r > 1

r – 1

Proof of Binomial Theorem not

required.

Expansion of (a + b)n

Use of (1 + x)n 1 + nx for any

rational n, where x is sufficiently

small e.g. 0(0.998)⅓

Rationalisation of the

Denominator:

a + √b

√c – √d

4. Algebraic Equations

(a) Factors and Factorisation.

Solution of Quadratic

equations using:-

(i) completing the square,

(ii) formula.

(a) Symmetric properties of

the equation

ax² + bx + c = 0

(b) Solution of two simulta-

neous equations where one

is linear and the other

quadratic.

The condition

b² – 4ac ≥ 0 for the

equation to have real roots.

Sum and product of roots.

Graphical and analytical

methods permissible.

WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION

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AREAS COMMON TO THE TWO ALTERNATIVES

ADDITIONAL TOPICS /NOTES

FOR ALTERNATIVES

TOPIC CONTENT NOTES

ALTERNATIVE X ALTERNATIVE Y

(For Candidates (For Candidates

offering Further offering Maths

Maths) Elective)

5. Polynomials

(i) Addition, subtraction

and multiplication of

polynomials.

(ii) Factor and remainder

theorems

(iii) Zeros of a polynomial

function.

(iv) Graphs of Polynomial

functions of degree

n ≤ 3.

(v) Division of a polynomial

of degree not greater

than 4 by a Polynomial

of lower degree.

Not exceeding degree 4

6. Rational Functions

and Partial Fractions

ax + b

e.g. f: x →

px² + qx + r

(i) The four basic operations.

(ii) Zeros, domain and range;

Sketching not required.

(iii) Resolution of

rational func-

tions into

partial frac-

tions.

Rational func-

tions of the

form

F(x)

Q(x) =

G(x)

G(x) ≠ 0

where G(x) and

F(x) are polyno-

mials, G(x) must

be factorisable

into linear and

quadratic factors

(Degree of Nume-

rator less than that

of denominator

which is less than

or equal to 4)

WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION

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AREAS COMMON TO THE TWO ALTERNATIVES

ADDITIONAL TOPICS /NOTES

FOR ALTERNATIVES

TOPIC CONTENT NOTES

(For Candidates (For Candidates

offering Further offering Maths

Maths) Elective)

7. Linear Inequalities

Graphical and Analytical

Solution of simultaneous linear

Inequalities in 2 variables and

Quadratic inequalities.

8. Logic

(i) The truth table, using not

P or Q, P and Q.

P implies Q, Q implies P.

(ii) Rule of syntax: true or

false statements, rule of

logic applied to arguments,

implications and

deductions

Validity of compound

statements involving

implications and

connectives.

Include the use of symbols:

~ P

p v q, p ^q, p q

Use of Truth tables.

9. Co-ordinate

Geometry:

Straight line

Conic Sections

(a) (i) Distance between two

points;

(ii) Mid-point of a line

segment;

(iii) Gradient of a line;

(iv) Conditions for parallel

and perpendicular

lines.

(b) Equation of a line:

(i) Intercept form;

(ii) Gradient form;

(iii) The general form.

(c) (i) Equation of a circle;

(ii) Tangents and normals

are required for circle.

Gradient of a line as ratio

of vertical change and

horizontal change.

(i) Equation in terms of

centre and radius e.g.

(x-a)² + (y-b)² = r²;

(ii) The general form:

x² + y² + 2gx + 2fy +

c = 0;

(iii) Equations of

parabola in

rectangular

Cartesian

coordinates.

10. Differentiation

(a) (i) The idea of a limit

(i) Intuitive treatment

of limit.

Relate to the

gradient of a curve.

WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION

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AREAS COMMON TO THE TWO ALTERNATIVES

ADDITIONAL TOPICS /NOTES

FOR ALTERNATIVES

TOPIC CONTENT NOTES

(For Candidates (For Candidates

offering Further offering Maths

Maths) Elective)

(ii) The derivative of

a function.

Application of differentiation

(b) (i) Second derivatives

and Rates of change;

(ii) Concept of maxima

and minima.

(ii) Its meaning and its

determination from

first principles in

simple cases only.

e.g. axn + b,

n ≤ 3, (n I)

(iii) Differentiation of

polynomials e.g.

2×4 – 4×3 + 3x² – x + 7

and (a + bxn ) m

(i) The equation of a

tangent to a curve at

a point.

(ii) Restrict turning

points to maxima

and minima.

(iii) Include curve

sketching (up to

cubic functions) and

linear kinematics.

(iv) Product and

Quotient rules.

Differentiation

of implicit

functions such

as ax² + by² = c

11. Integration

(i) Indefinite Integral

(ii) Definite Integral

(i) Exclude n = -1 in

∫ xndx.

(ii) Integration of sum

and difference of

polynomials e.g.

4 x³ + 3x² – 6x + 5

include linear

kinematics.

Relate to the area

under a curve.

(ii) Simple problems

on integration

by substitution.

WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION

FURTHER MATHEMATICS/MATHEMATICS (ELECTIVE)

240

AREAS COMMON TO THE TWO ALTERNATIVES

ADDITIONAL TOPICS /NOTES

FOR ALTERNATIVES

TOPIC CONTENT NOTES

(For Candidates (For Candidates

offering Further offering Maths

Maths) Elective)

(iii) Applications of the

definite integral

(iii) Plane areas and

Rate of change.

(iii) Volume of solid

of revolution.

(iv) Approximation

restricted to

trapezium rule.

12. Sets

(i) Idea of a set defined by a

property.

Set notations and their

meanings.

(ii) Disjoint sets, Universal

set and Complement of

set.

(iii) Venn diagrams, use of sets

and Venn diagrams to

solve problems.

(iv) Commutative and

Associative laws,

Distributive properties

over union and

intersection

{x : x is real}, ,

empty set { }, , , ,C,

U (universal set) or

A1 (Complement of set

A).

13. Mappings and

Functions

(i) Domain and co-domain

of a function.

(ii) One-to-one, onto,

identity and constant

mapping;

(iii) Inverse of a function;

(iv) Composition of

functions.

The notation: e.g.

: x 3x + 4

g: x x²

where x R.

Graphical representation

of a function.

Image and the range.

Notation: fog (x) = f(g(x))

Restrict to simple

algebraic functions only.

WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION

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AREAS COMMON TO THE TWO ALTERNATIVES

ADDITIONAL TOPICS /NOTES

FOR ALTERNATIVES

TOPIC CONTENT NOTES

(For Candidates (For Candidates

offering Further offering Maths

Maths) Elective)

14. Matrices:

(a) Algebra of

Matrices.

(b) Linear

Transformation

(i) Matrix representation

(ii) Equal matrices

(iii) Addition of matrices

(iv) Multiplication of a

Matrix by a scalar.

(v) Multiplication of

matrices.

Restrict to 2 x 2 matrices

Introduce the notation A,

B, C for a matrix.

(i) The notation I

for the unit

identity matrix.

(ii) Zero or null

matrix.

Some special

matrices:

(i) Reflection in

the x-axis;

Reflection in the

y-axis.

The clockwise and

anti-clockwise

rotation about the

origin.

(ii) Inverse of a

2 x 2 matrix;

(i) Restrict to the

Cartesian plane;

(ii) Composition of

linear

transformation;

(iii) Inverse of a

linear trans-

formation;

(iv) Some special

linear trans-

formations:

Identity

Transforma-

tion,

Reflection in

the x-axis

Reflection in

the y-axis;

Reflection in

the line y = x

Clockwise and anti-

clockwise rotation

about the origin.

WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION

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AREAS COMMON TO THE TWO ALTERNATIVES

ADDITIONAL TOPICS /NOTES

FOR ALTERNATIVES

TOPIC CONTENT NOTES

(For Candidates (For Candidates

offering Further offering Maths

Maths) Elective)

(c) Determinants

Evaluation of deter-

minants of 2 x 2

and 3 x 3 matrices.

Application of deter-

minants to:

(i) Areas of triangles

and quadrila-

terals.

(ii) Solution of 3

simultaneous

linear equations

15. Operations

Binary Operations:

Closure, Commutativity,

Associativity and Distributivity,

Identity elements and inverses.

WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION

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243

PART II

STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY

AREAS COMMON TO THE TWO ALTERNATIVES

ADDITIONAL TOPICS /NOTES

FOR ALTERNATIVES

TOPIC CONTENT NOTES

(For Candidates (For Candidates

offering Further offering Maths

Maths) Elective)

1. Graphical

representation of

data

(i) Frequency tables.

(ii) Cumulative frequency

tables.

(iii) Histogram (including

unequal class intervals)

(iv) Frequency curves and

ogives for grouped data

of equal and unequal

class intervals.

2. Measures of

location

Central tendency;

Mean, median, mode, quartiles

and percentiles

Include:

(i) Mode and modal

group for grouped

data from a

histogram;

(ii) Median from

grouped data and

from ogives;

(iii) Mean for grouped

data, use of an

assumed mean

required.

3. Measures of

Dispersion

(a) Determination of:

(i) Range, Inter-Quartile

range from an ogive.

(ii) Variance and

standard deviation.

Simple applications.

For grouped and ungrouped

data using an assumed

mean or true mean.

4. Correlation

(i) Scatter diagrams

(ii) Line of fit

Meaning of correlation:

positive, negative and

zero correlations from

scatter diagrams.

Use of line of best fit to

predict one variable from

another.

Rank correlation

Spearman’s Rank

Correlation

Coefficient.

Use data without ties

Meaning and

applications.

WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION

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AREAS COMMON TO THE TWO ALTERNATIVES

ADDITIONAL TOPICS /NOTES

FOR ALTERNATIVES

TOPIC CONTENT NOTES

(For Candidates (For Candidates

offering Further offering Maths

Maths) Elective)

5. Probability

Meaning of probability

Relative frequency

Calculation of Probability.

Use of simple sample spaces.

Addition and multiplication of

probabilities.

E.g. tossing 2 dice once,

drawing balls from a box

without replacement.

Equally likely events and

mutually exclusive events

only to be used.

Probability Distribu-

tion.

Binomial Probability

P(x = r) = n Crprqn-r

where Probability of

success = P

Probability of failure

= q, p + q = 1 and n is

the number of trials.

Simple problems

only.

6. Permutations and

Combinations.

Simple cases of number of

arrangements on a line.

Simple cases of combination

of objects.

e.g. (i) arrangement of

students in a row.

(ii) drawing balls

from a box.

Simple problems

only.

n n!

P r =

(n – r) !

n!

nCr =

r!(n – r)!

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PART III

VECTORS AND MECHANICS

AREAS COMMON TO THE TWO ALTERNATIVES

ADDITIONAL TOPICS /NOTES

FOR ALTERNATIVES

TOPIC CONTENT NOTES

(For Candidates (For Candidates

offering Further offering Maths

Maths) Elective)

1. Vectors

(i) Definitions of scalar and

vector quantities.

(ii) Representation of Vectors.

(iii) Algebra of vectors.

(iv) Commutative,

Associative and

Distributive properties.

(v) The parallelogram Law.

(vi) Unit Vectors.

(vii) Position and free

Vectors.

(iii) Addition and

subtraction of

vectors,

Multiplication of

vector by vectors and

by scalars.

Equation of vectors.

(iv) Illustrate through

diagram,

diagrammatic

representation.

Illustrate by solving

problems in

elementary plane

geometry e.g.

concurrency of

medians and

diagonals.

The notation

i for the unit vector

1

0 and

j for the unit vector

0

1

along the x and y axis

respectively.

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AREAS COMMON TO THE TWO ALTERNATIVES

ADDITIONAL TOPICS /NOTES

FOR ALTERNATIVES

TOPIC CONTENT NOTES

(For Candidates (For Candidates

offering Further offering Maths

Maths) Elective)

(viii) Resolution and

Composition of

Vectors.

(ix) Scalar (dot) product and

its application.

(viii) Not more than

three vectors need

be composed.

Using the dot product to

establish such trigonome-

tric formulae as

(i) Cos (a ± b) = cos a

cos b ± sin a sin b

(ii) sin (a ± b) = sin a

cos b ± sin b cos a

(iii) c² = a² + b² -2abCos c

Finding angle between two

vectors.

2. Statics

(i) Definition of a force.

(ii) Representation of

Forces.

(iii) Composition and

resolution of coplanar

forces acting at a point.

(iv) Equilibrium of particles.

(v) Lami’s theorem

(vi) Determination of

Resultant.

(iv) Apply to simple

problems e.g.

suspension of

particles by strings.

(v) Apply to simple

problems on

equivalent system of

forces.

(vi) Composition

and resolution

of general

coplanar

forces on rigid

bodies.

(viii) Moments of

forces.

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AREAS COMMON TO THE TWO ALTERNATIVES

ADDITIONAL TOPICS /NOTES

FOR ALTERNATIVES

TOPIC CONTENT NOTES

(For Candidates (For Candidates

offering Further offering Maths

Maths) Elective)

Friction:

Distinction

between smooth

and rough planes.

Determination of

the coefficient of

friction required.

3. Dynamics

(a) (i) The concepts of

Motion, Time and

Space.

(ii) The definitions of

displacement,

velocity,

acceleration and

speed.

(iii) Composition of

velocities and

accelerations.

(b) Equations of motion

(i) Rectilinear motion;

(ii) Newton’s Law of

motion.

(iii) Consequences of

Newton’s Laws:

The impulse and

momentum

equations:

Conservation of Linear

Momentum.

(iv) Motion under

gravity.

Application of the

equations of motions:

V = u + at;

S = ut + ½ at²;

V² = u² + 2as.

Motion along

inclined planes.

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